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This authoritative text is the only comprehensive reference available on electrophysiologic vision testing, offering both practical information on techniques and problems as well as basic physiology and anatomy, theoretical concepts, and clinical correlations. The second edition, of the widely used text, offers extensive new material and updated information: 65 of the 84 chapters are completely new, with the changes reflecting recent advances in the field. The book will continue to be an essential resource for practitioners and scholars from a range of disciplines within vision science.

The contributions not only cover new information_important material that is likely to become more important in the next decade_but also offer a long-range perspective on the field and its remarkable development in the last century. After discussing the history and background of clinical electrophysiology, the book introduces the anatomy of the retina and principles of cell biology in the visual pathways at the molecular, physiological, and biochemical levels. It relates these new findings to the techniques and interpretations of clinical tests, including the electro-oculogram (EOG), electroretinogram (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP), which are discussed in detail, as are equipment, data acquisition and analysis, principles and protocols for clinical testing, diseases and dysfunction, and animal testing. Notable additions for this edition include chapters on the origin of electroretinogram waveforms, multifocal techniques, testing in standard laboratory animals, recent advances in analysis of abnormalities in disease, and the applications of these techniques to the study of genetic abnormalities.

1. History of the Electroretinogram
2. History of Electro-Oculography
3. History of Visual Evoked Cortical Testing

Part II Anatomy of the Retina, Principles of Cell Biology in the Visual Pathways: Functional, Physiological, Biochemical
4. The Photoreceptor-Retinal Pigment Epithelium Interface
5. Membrane Mechanisms of the Retinal Pigment Epitelium
6. Functional Organization of the Retina
7. Synaptic Transmission: Sensitivity Control Mechanisms
8. Phototransduction and Photoreceptor Physiology
9. Structure and Function of Retinal Synapses: Role of Cell Adhesion Molecules and Extracellular Matrix
10. Central Disorders of Vision in Humans

Part III Origins of Slow Electrophysiological Components
11. The Electro-oculogram
12. Orgins of the Electroretinogram
13. The Origin of the Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG)
14. The Multifocal ERG and VEP Techniques
15. Origin of the VEP Potentials

Part IV Equipment
16. Data Acquisition Systems for Electrodiagnostic Testing
17. Electrodes for Visual Testing
18. Amplifiers and Special-Purpose Data Acquisitions Systems
19. Stimulus Devices, Calibration and Measurement of Light

Part V Data Acquisition
20.1. Introduction to the ISCEV Standards
20.2. EOG Standard
20.3. Standard for Clinical Electroretinography
20.4. Standard for Pattern Electroretinography
20.5. Visual Evoked Potentials Standard
20.6. Guidelines for Basic Multifocal Electroretinography (mfERG)
21. Multifocal Techniques
22. The Pattern Electroretinogram
23. Assessing Infant Acuity, Fusion, and Stereopsis with Visual Evoked Potential
24. Aging and Pattern Visual Evoked Cortical Potential
25. Aberrant Albino and Achiasmat Visual Pathways: Noninvasive Electrophysiological Assessment
26. Clinical psychophysical techniques
27. Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity
28. Suppressive Rod-Cone Interaction
29. The Use of Fluorescein Angiography as an Adjunct to Electrophysiological Testing

Part VI Data Analysis
30. Experimental Design and Data Analyses in Vision Function Testing
31. Analytical Techniques
32. Reverse Correlation Methods
33. Stimulus-Response Functions for the Scotopic b-Wave
34. Kernel Analysis
35. Measuring the Health of the Human Photoreceptors with the Leading Edge of the a-Wave

Part VII Principles of Clinical Testing
36. Localizing Lesions in the Visual System
37. Paired-Flash ERG Analysis of Rod Phototransduction and Adaptation
38. Hyperabnormal (Supranormal) Electroretinographic Responses
39. Technical Issues in Evaluating Patients in Therapeutic Trials

Part VIII Other Protocols for Recording of ERG and Slower Potentials, Technical Issues, and Auxiliary Testing Techniques
40. Early Receptor Potential
41. Nonphotic Standing Potential Responses: Hyperosmolarity, Bicarbonate, and Diamox Responses
42. Direct Current (DC) Electroretinogram
43. The Oscillatory Potentials of the Electroretinogram
44. Flicker Electroretinography
45. Chromatic Recordings of Electroretinograms
46. Adaptation Effects on the Electroretinogram
47. Clinical Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Investigations into Color Defects
48. Causes and Cures of Artifacts

Part IX Principles of Clinical Testing and Evaluation of Visual Dysfunction from Developmental, Toxic, and Acquired Causes
49. Testing Levels of the Visual System
50. Effects of High Myopia on the Electroretinogram
51. Electrodiagnostic Testing in Malingering and Hysteria
52. Developmental Amblyopia
53. Visually Evoked Potentials in Cortical Blindness
54. Drug Side Effects and Toxicology of the Visual System
55. Mitochondrial Diseases

Part X Evaluation of Vascular Diseases, Inflammatory States, and Tumors
56. Diseases of the Middle Retina: Venous and Arterial Occlusions
57. Acute Disorders of the Outer Retina, Pigment Epithelium and Choroid
58. Autoimmune retinopathy, CAR and MAR Syndromes
59. Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

Part XI Clinical Descriptions: Retinal Pigment Epithelium Diseases
60. Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid and Retina
61. Dominant Drusen
62. Stargardt Disease
63. Bietti""s Crystalline Dystrophy of Cornea and Retina
64. Leber Congenital Amaurosis
65. Pattern Dystrophies
66. Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
67. Sorsby""s Fundus Dystrophy

Part XII Diseases of the Outer Retina
68. Choroideremia
69. Retinitis Pigmentosa
70. Cone Dystrophies and Degenerations
71. Vitamin A Deficiency

Part XIII Diseases of the Midretina (Including Negative Waveform Diseases)
72. Differential Diagnosis of the Electronegative Electroretinogram
73. Juvenile X-Linked Retinoschisis
74. Congenital Stationary Night Blindness
75. Quinine Retinopathy

Part XIV Optic Nerve and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
76. Leber""s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
77. The Pattern Electroretinogram in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension
78. Chiasmal and Retrochiasmal Lesions
79. Optic Nerve and Central Nervous Dysfunctions: Parkinson""s Disease and Multiple Sclerosis
80. Diseases of Fatty Acid Storage and Metabolism: Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses and the Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Part XV Animal Testing
81. Evaluating Retinal Function in the Mouse Retina with the Electroretinogram
82. ERGs of Dog and Chicken
83. ERG Testing in Larger Animals
84. Visual Evoked Potentials in Animals

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